On another new episode of the Ad Law Access PodcastAlysa Hutnik starts at the beginning and explains a few of the issues you need to think about before starting a telemarketing texting campaign.

For additional information see the Ad Law Access blog posts:

Please join Kelley Drye in 2017 for the Advertising and Privacy Law Webinar Series. Like our annual in-person event, this series will provide engaging speakers with extensive experience and knowledge in the fields of advertising, privacy, and consumer protection. These webinars will give key updates and provide practical tips to address issues faced by counsel.

Ad iconThe Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) recently announced that enforcement of its guidance on cross-device tracking (the “Application of the DAA Principles of Transparency and Control to Data Used Across Devices”) is set to begin on February 1, 2017. Originally published in November 2015, the guidance was intended to clarify how the DAA’s Core

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InMobiThe FTC announced a settlement on Wednesday with mobile advertising company, InMobi Pte Ltd., concerning allegations that the company deceptively tracked the geolocation of hundreds of millions of unknowing consumers, including children, to serve them geo-targeted advertising.  As part of the settlement, InMobi will pay $950,000 in civil penalties relating to violations of the Children’s

iHeartMedia has agreed to pay $8.5 million to resolve allegations that the company sent unsolicited text messages to radio station listeners, in Messageviolation of the TCPA. According to the complaint, the company would invite listeners to send text messages in order to request songs or enter contests. Listeners who submitted requests or entries would receive

Amazon AppsYesterday, a federal judge ruled that Amazon is liable for permitting unauthorized in-app purchases incurred by children.  Amazon is the last in a series of actions brought by the FTC against third-party platforms related to kids’ in-app charges (we previously blogged about the other two actions against Apple and Google here and here, which resulted in refunds to consumers totaling over $50 million).

FTC Allegations

The FTC first filed its complaint against Amazon in district court in July 2014, alleging that the billing of parents and other account holders for in-app purchases incurred by children “without having obtained the account holders’ express informed consent” violated Section 5 of the FTC Act.  Many of the apps offering in-app purchases were geared towards children and offered as “free” with no indication of in-app purchases.  These in-app charges generally ranged from $0.99 to $99.99, but could be incurred in unlimited amounts.  The FTC alleged that, while the app developers set the price for apps and in-app purchases, Amazon retained 30% of the revenue from every in-app sale.

In app purchaseThe complaint alleged that when Amazon first introduced in-app charges in November 2011, the default setting initially permitted in-app purchases without a passcode, unless this setting had been enabled by the user in the parental controls.  Following a firestorm of complaints by parents surprised to find these in-app charges, Amazon introduced a password prompt feature for in-app charges of $20 or more in March 2012.  This initial step, however, did not include charges that, in combination, exceeded $20.  In August 2012, the FTC notified Amazon that it was investigating its in-app billing practices.

Amazon began to require password prompts more frequently beginning in February 2013, only if the purchase initiated was over $20, a second in-app purchase was attempted within five minutes of the first, or when parental controls were enabled.  Even so, once a password was entered, in-app purchases were often authorized for the next hour.  Amazon continued to refine its in-app purchase process over the next few months, identifying that “In-App Purchasing” was available on an app’s description page, and adding a password requirement for all first-time in-app purchases, among other things.

The Court’s Order

The FTC moved for summary judgement in February 2016.  In it April 27 order, the court granted the FTC’s summary judgement motion finding that: (1) the FTC applied the proper three-prong legal test for determining unfair business practices (e.g., a substantial injury that is not reasonable to consumers, and not otherwise outweighed by countervailing benefits); (2) the FTC’s witness used to calculate money damages was timely disclosed, even though she was identified after the discovery cut-off date since the FTC made its intentions to seek monetary relief known from the beginning; and (3) Amazon’s business practices around in-app purchases violated Section 5.
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Earlier this year, PayPal announced planned changes to its User Agreement that would have, among other things, given the company broad rights to contact people by phone or text messages. The provision stated, in part:

You consent to receive autodialed or prerecorded calls and text messages from PayPal at any telephone number that you have

Last week, the FTC concluded a $40 million settlement with TracFone – the largest prepaid mobile provider in the U.S. – over allegations that the company throttled customers’ purportedly unlimited data plans. The FTC alleged that TracFone advertised $45 per month unlimited plans, but systematically throttled and/or suspended customers’ connections after they passed a certain

On September 4, 2014, the FTC announced a settlement with Google Inc., which requires the search giant to pay at least $19 million in refunds to consumers that the Commission alleges were billed for unauthorized in-app charges incurred by kids.  The settlement follows a similar settlement in January with Apple (which required Apple to pay a minimum of $32.5 million in refunds), and a recent complaint filed by the FTC in federal court against Amazon.

The FTC’s complaint against Google alleges that the company offered free and paid apps through its Play store.  Many of these apps are rated for kids and offer “in-app purchases” ranging from $0.99 to $200, which can be incurred in unlimited amounts.  The FTC alleges that many apps invite children to obtain virtual items in a context that blurs the line between what costs virtual currency and what costs real money. 

At the time Google introduced in-app charges in March 2011, users were notified of an in-app charge with a popup containing information about the virtual item and the amount of the charge.  A child, however, could clear the popup simply by pressing a button labeled “CONTINUE.”   In many instances, once a user had cleared the popup, Google did not request any further action before billing the account holder for the corresponding in-app charge. 

It was not until mid- to late-2012 that Google begin requiring password entry in connection with in-app charges. The complaint alleges, however, that once a password was entered, it was stored for 30 minutes, allowing a user to incur unlimited in-app charges during that time period.  Regardless of the number or amount of charges incurred, Google did not prompt for additional password entry during this 30 minute period.

Google controls the billing process for these in-app charges and retains 30 percent of all revenue.  For all apps, account holders can associate their Google accounts with certain payment mechanisms, such as a credit card, gift card, or mobile phone billing.  The complaint highlights that Google received thousands of complaints related to unauthorized in-app charges by children and that unauthorized in-app purchases was the lead cause of chargebacks to consumers.
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