California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA)

Just two months before the effective date (January 1, 2023) of the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board met on October 28 and 29 to discuss revisions to the agency’s initial draft CPRA regulations.  Board members discussed a range of proposed changes that could significantly impact businesses but also reserved discussion on important topics, such as employee and business-to-business data, for future proceedings.

This post provides further details about the rulemaking process, as well as takeaways from the Board’s discussion of key substantive topics, such as restrictions on the collection of personal information and opt-out preference signals.  The Board directed CPPA staff to consider and include specific modifications, as discussed below; and on November 3, the CPPA released a further revision of its proposed rules for a 15-day public comment period (the “November 3 Draft Regulations”).  The deadline to submit comments is 8:00 am on Monday, November 21.
Continue Reading CPRA Rule Revisions Unlikely to be Finalized in 2022

The spotlights of the consumer privacy world are once again on California after the new California Privacy Protection Agency made a surprise Friday night release of its draft California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) regulations on May 27, 2002.

In this webinar in association with Mondaq, Robert Cunningham and Rod Ghaemmaghami provided observations on the

On Friday May 27, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (CPPA) Board announced its next public meeting will be on June 8, 2022. The announcement simply stated the date of the meeting, that there are “some discussion items [that] will be relevant to the Agency’s rulemaking work,” and that information on how to attend the meeting and the meeting agenda could be found on the CPPA’s site. It did not take too many Internet sleuths to review the posted agenda, and note that Agenda Item No. 3 was “Discussion and Possible Action Regarding Proposed Regulations, Sections 7000–7304, to Implement, Interpret, and Make Specific the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as Amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, Including Possible Notice of Proposed Action,” and that the posted meeting materials included a copy of the “Draft Proposed CCPA Regulations.” In addition, Agenda Item No. 4 provides for “Delegation of Authority to the Executive Director for Rulemaking Functions.” Full stop, June will be an active month for California privacy rulemaking.

But let’s unpack the surprises in the draft regulations. The 66-page draft proposed CCPA regulations (and they are referred to within the document as CCPA regulations) take a prescriptive approach to privacy obligations. In concept, that is not too surprising. Of concern, in some areas, they uniquely depart from approaches set forth by other state privacy laws. The quiet release of dramatic new obligations while bipartisan Senators reportedly may be reaching consensus on federal privacy legislation that could  preempt state law obligations puts companies doing business in California in a difficult position. Do they scramble to operationalize new programs to comply with the CPPA’s new requirements, if finalized? Do they wait on Congress? Do they choose a third path? For now, while these draft rules are certain to change in some respects before they are finalized, they directionally outline a new privacy baseline for the United States. We highlight certain aspects of the draft rules below, with a particular focus on accountability and risk exposure, how data can be shared with other businesses for digital advertising or other functions, and what those business agreements must include to lawfully support such business relationships and comply with the amended CCPA.
Continue Reading New California Draft Privacy Regulations: How They Would Change Business Obligations and Enforcement Risk

Last week, California’s Governor Gavin Newsom signed into law AB 694, which makes a few technical changes to the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA).  The relevant changes to the CPRA are summarized below.

  • As defined in the CPRA, “personal information” does not include publicly available information or lawfully obtained, truthful information that is a

Last year’s voter guide to California Proposition 24, the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), included a stark argument against enacting the privacy ballot initiative because it did not go far enough to protect employee privacy.  “Currently, employers can obtain all kinds of personal information about their workers and even job applicants,” the argument against Proposition

Just a few months after California officials announced the nominations of the inaugural Board members of the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CalPPA”), the CalPPA released the agenda for its first board meeting on June 14, 2021. The meeting will be held remotely in accordance with California Executive Order N-29-20, but the public may still

The California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), effective January 1, 2023, adds “contractors” to the list of entities that a business may entrust with customer data.  So what is a “contractor?”  And how are “contractors” different from other entities described by California privacy law, such as “service providers” or “third parties?”

As it turns out, the answer is surprising.  Contractors are nearly identical to service providers, with just two differences:  contractors are not data processors; and contractors must make a contractual certification in CCPA contracts.  Moreover, contractors are not even new entities, and were already described in existing California privacy law.

Origins of “Contractors” in CCPA

To help explain the origins of the new contractor classification, we start with the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA).  Under the CCPA, now in effect, each disclosure of personal information from a covered business to another entity is regulated, either via consumer opt out preferences or via contractual restrictions.  Altogether, there are three potential data flows described in the CCPA:  business to third party, business to service provider, and business to a person who is not a third party.  We describe each in turn:

  • Business to Third Party:  First, when a business discloses personal information to a third party, this constitutes the “sale” of personal information (unless an exception applies, such as in the context of an intentional disclosure).  The CCPA grants consumers the right to opt out of such sales of their personal information to prevent these data flows.

As an example, selling a marketing list to a third party or sharing profile information with an adtech partner in most cases would be considered a sale of personal information to a third party.

  • Business to Service Provider:  Second, when a business discloses personal information to a service provider, no “sale” occurs and there is no right of consumers to opt out.  The requirements for the recipient to be a service provider are that (1) the service provider processes personal information on behalf of the business, and (2) the service provider agrees to retain, use, or disclose the personal information only for business purposes specified in a written contract.

Service providers provide technical, professional, and other business support to the business.  For example, a service provider might offer various services such as cloud-based servers or software, consulting, or e-commerce fulfillment services.

  • Business to a Person Who Is Not a Third Party:  Finally, there is a rarely discussed third option in the CCPA.  The CCPA states that any recipient of personal information that agrees to certain enhanced contractual terms is not a third party.  This third category requires that the recipient agree to contractual terms that mirror service provider contractual terms, along with three additional terms:  (1) to refrain from selling the personal information, (2) to refrain from retaining, using, or disclosing the information outside the direct business relationship between the recipient and the business, and (3) to certify that the recipient understands the above contractual restrictions.

This third option is significant to avoid the “sale” of personal information.  If the recipient is not a third party, then a sale can only occur if the recipient is a “business” under CCPA.  In many cases, the recipient will not be a business either, typically because the recipient does not determine the purposes and means of processing the personal information.

As an example, if an authorized reseller furnishes a manufacturer with a list of new orders for fulfillment, and the manufacturer agrees to use the list only to fulfill orders, the manufacturer is not a third party.   Because the manufacturer does not determine the purposes and means of processing the personal information it receives, the manufacturer is not acting as a “business.”  No sale occurs.

Similarly, if an identity verification service sends personal information to a company to assist that company with confirming the identity of an applicant for service, and the company agrees contractually to limit its use and disclosure of the information for business purposes, the recipient is not a third party or business and no sale occurs from the identity verification service to the business.

Here’s a summary of the entities that may receive personal data under the CCPA:
Continue Reading CPRA Update: What is a “Contractor?”

California officials today announced their nominees to be the five inaugural members of the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board.  Created by the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), the CPPA will become a powerful, state-level privacy regulator long before its enforcement authority becomes effective in 2023, and today’s appointments move the CPPA one large step

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) right to non-discrimination explainedThe California Attorney General’s office announced a fourth set of proposed modifications to the CCPA regulations. These modifications: (1) clarify the requirement for businesses that sell personal information that is collected offline to provide offline opt-out notices; and (2) propose an opt-out button for businesses to feature online along with opt-out notices and the “Do

On Tuesday, November 3, 2020, California voters passed ballot Proposition 24, the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”). Also known as CCPA 2.0, CPRA brings a number of changes to the CCPA, the majority of which will become operative on January 1, 2023. In addition to revising some of the definitions that are fundamental